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Intelligent module configurations.

UF modules configured cleverly
to handle various types of
contaminated water.


Proprietary Ø10” UF modules.

Ideal module diameter for most applications.

Most of our modular UF systems are fitted with our proprietary Ø10” (1) (DN 250) modules. Apart from other factors such as feed water’s parameters, a UF system’s total output of filtrate depends on the total filtration surface area of membrane fibre used. For tubular UF modules, there is an optimal number of hollow fibre membrane strands that can be encased within each module to be optimally effective and efficient.

UF modules

Ø10” modules (of varying lengths) have been gaining popularity as the standard diameter used in water industries where tubular configurations are concerned. Each module is technically able to churn out more flux than those of Ø4” to Ø8” modules, which were more popular in the past. Subject to its length, it is also about the most optimal diameter size considering its weight and size where assembly and replacement processes are concerned.


Optional module diameters.

Our range of UF modules includes Ø8”, Ø6” and Ø4” diameters of different lengths. These are generally applied for small treatment capacities required and other project’s constraints. We incorporate such modules at times for pilot-plant testing purposes or for demo systems used for trade fairs and exhibitions.

Optional module diameters

Ø10” x different lengths. Flux and space.

Our Ø10”-UF modules come in 3 different lengths of 48” (2), 60” (2) and 72” (2). Most of our standard and custom-designed-built UF systems are fitted with either 48” or 60” modules, taking into consideration the treatment capacity required, project’s site space and layout, portability issues etc. Our 72” modules, though relatively more onerous for handling and replacements, are suitable for large treatment plants with space issues or constraints.

Flux and space

Thoughtful designs. Well structured.

Cost-saving features and lasting quality.

We take assembly’s simplicity and practicality, filtration efficiency, durability and leakage-proof factors etc into consideration for the designs of our UF modules’ structures. The end-caps of our modules are made to withstand high pressure in case of pressure spikes during operations. The modules are detachable from the end-caps so as to save our clients costs without having to discard the end-caps when replacing the modules in the long term.

Cost-saving features

Cross-flow vs. dead-end filtration processes.

Our cross-flow UF modules give you more product water and costs you less.


For most of our UF systems, we apply cross-flow filtration process. The direction of feed water flow, in relation to the membrane surface, determines the type of filtration in a membrane system. In a cross-flow application, feed water basically flows “parallel” or tangential to the membrane fibre’s surface. Cross-flow filtration process constantly allows a smaller quantity of feed water, during filtration cycles, to carry solids and contaminants through and have them flushed out from the modules. This help minimise the build-up of solids and contaminants on the fibre’s surface. It hence helps reduce fouling tendency and the frequency of backflush cycles, producing relatively more flux per module/system, and sustaining longer membrane’s life.


Our membrane and modules can be used for either cross-flow or dead-end filtration processes. However, we apply dead-end filtration process very selectively (e.g. for our standard one- and two-module UF systems intended for general industrial applications with less complicated feed water qualities). In the dead-end filtration process, the feed water effectively contacts the membrane surface at more or less a perpendicular angle, driven by the lack of through-put pressure in the modules. Dead-end flow can be achieved in our cross-flow modules by simply closing the discharge valves connected to our modules. In a dead-end operational mode, solids and contaminants build up quickly on the membrane’s surface, thus more frequent backflush cycles are required, less filtrate produced and probably shorter membrane’s life span.


Inside-out filtration modules.

For low feed water’s turbidities and efficient backflush processes.

We use our modified PES and PVC membranes for inside-out filtration mode (apart from using them for outside-in applications as well subject to treatment goals). Inside-out filtration mode refers to the process of having the feed water passing through the lumens of membrane fibre, and collecting filtrate (product water) from the outside of the fibre. For purifying feed water with relatively low turbidity (e.g. < 15 NTU), we recommend the use of our inside-out modules. The backflush process will remove the contaminants within the lumens more effectively, and no airscouring is needed during backflush cycles, saving energy costs.

Inside-out filtration modules
filtration and backflush
filtration and backflush2

Subject to feed water’s qualities, the filtration cycle usually runs for 30 – 45 minutes per cycle. The backflush cycle operates on our alternate auto-modes of either a preset timeframe, or a preset TMP (transmembrane pressure), whichever being reached first. Our backflush cycles consist of upward and downward flush directions separately in that sequence, and the whole process usually lasts only around 1 minute and the filtration cycle returns to service immediately thereafter. Our 2-way backflush process ensures that the membrane fibre’s inner surface is well cleaned, and the contaminants well flushed out from within the lumens.


Outside-in filtration modules.

Purifying turbid water. Minimising clogging and fouling.

All our modified PES, PVC and PVDF (for outside-in filtration mode only) membranes are suitable for outsidein filtration process. Outside-in filtration mode refers to the process of having feed water being pressurised through from the outer surface area to the lumen of the hollow fibre. Filtrate (product water) is collected through the fibre’s lumen, leaving water concentrate and contaminants outside of the fibre. For feed water having higher turbidity of 15 – 50 NTU or so, we would usually apply our outside-in modules to prevent frequent clogging issues (and fouling), reduce backflush frequency and maximise flux. Air-scouring is required during backflush cycles to remove solids and contaminants from the fibre’s outer surface more effectively.

Outside-in filtration modules
filtration and backflush cycles of our outside-in

Our outside-in UF modules’ filtration cycle usually runs for 30 – 60 minutes per cycle, depending on the feed water’s qualities. The backflush cycle begins based on either a preset timeframe or a preset TMP (transmembrane pressure) automatically. Unlike our inside-out applications, reject water is flushed out upwards only through the module’s central conduit. This process lasts around 30-45 seconds per cycle depending on the feed water’s qualities. During backflush cycle, while pressurised filtrate (or clean water) penetrates through the fibre’s walls from the lumens and “purge” solids and contaminants from the outer surface of the fibre, air scouring is needed concurrently from the lower end of our modules to help effectively remove the particles and contaminants and uplift them to the top of our modules for discharge.


Proprietary A-series (outside-in) UF modules.

Excellent hybrid MBR-Tubular UF modules to purify tough waters.

Using our modified PVC and PVDF membrane (for their stronger mechanical strengths), our Aeration (A)series UF modules are specifically designed and configured with Membrane Bio Reactor’s fine-air bubble aeration features within the tubular modules. Affixed within the bottom end-caps of our A-series UF modules are our proprietary air diffusion devices, which are capable of generating fine air bubbles when air is pressurised through. Our A-series UF modules provide feed water with efficient aeration. Even distribution of fine air bubbles within the modules provides an aerobic environment for microbial degradation of organic matter in feed water during filtration cycles. The aeration process also provides mixing so that the microorganisms come into intimate contact with the dissolved and suspended organic matter, making the resultant organic solids to be removed or separated more easily by the membrane.


The filtration and backflush cycles and duration work quite similarly with those applied for our outside-in membrane configuration. The settings of these are subject to the qualities of feed water. Backflush cycles are similarly activated by either a preset time or TMP automatically. However, unlike air scouring with big air bubbles commonly applied in outside-in filtration configuration during backflush cycles, fine air bubbles from our unique diffuser, and the even distribution of fine air bubbles moving upward within the module, help remove high content of solids and contaminants from the outer surface of membrane fibre a lot more effectively during the upward backflush cycles. A shorter downward flush cycle using feed water is usually added right after the upward backflush cycle in the operations of our A-series modules. This helps flush out the remaining solids and contaminants that may gather within the lower sections of the modules postupwardbackflush-cycles.

Multiple advantages of MBR and tubular UF modules combined.

Our A-series UF modules combine the technical advantages offered by both MBR process and tubular configuration. Fine air bubble aeration process breaks down the organic matter and prevent fouling on membrane surface. Tubular configuration contains the undesired solids and contaminants better, and hence enables more effective flush and discharge of such content. Tubular modules are easier for expandability in a system’s capacity, handling during replacements, enhanced cleaning with chemicals etc, compared with submersible MBR membrane etc. This proprietary “hybrid” module configuration allows us to purify water of relatively high turbidity, iron, manganese (and other minerals) and organic contents.

Handling high turbidity, iron and manganese content.

Fine air bubbles generated by our diffusion device scours the membrane filtration surface more effectively. Adding this aeration feature throughout our modules’ cross-flow filtration cycles help prevent highly turbid feed water (up to 100 NTU or more) from clogging membrane fibre. Aeration during filtration mode also facilitates oxidation of minerals such as iron and manganese. This allows the larger oxidised iron and manganese (and other minerals) particulates in the feed water to be filtered out by the membrane fibre more effectively (though other pre-treatment option may be needed subject to the levels of iron, manganese and other minerals’ contents in the feed water). Our A-series modules are ideal for purifying underground water.

Handling high COD/organic
content in feed water.

Fine air bubbles avail more dissolved oxygen in feed water streams. This provides a conducive aerobic environment for lowering/ removing odour, undesired taste, color, oil and grease, BOD/COD etc. With cross-flow concentrate being returned to the feed water tank usually, it allows longer retention time of the dissolved oxygen in the circulated feed water stream for the aerobic treatment of these undesired elements. While typical conventional outside-in UF modules could barely handle COD greater than 15 ppm, our A-series modules are ideal to purify feed water with COD of up to 200 ppm or more. They are ideal for reclaiming greywater, treated sewage and industrial wastewater back to use.


Different modules. Optimised performances.

Small differences in designs. Big differences in performances.

One type of UF membrane does not treat all types of water equally well. One type of UF module does not perform best across different applications. These, even if with varying comprehensive pre-treatment processes. We know. And thus, we carry a selective and innovative range of different UF membrane materials, different pore sizes. But that’s not all. We combine these variations with different cleverly designed and structured module’s configurations. And these give us a range of UF modules wide enough for us to treat feed water of most challenging parameters to product water of the most demanding standards, when UF technologies are called for. While adequate pre-treatment options are often needed subject to the feed water’s parameters and the product water’s qualities desired, our range of membrane and modules available allows us to balance overall costs and performances between your pre-treatment requirements and UF systems like no others.

Different modules
  1. These parameters are provided as indicative acceptable levels of feed water’s qualities for direct filtration by various types of our UF modules (using our membrane of MWCO of 100,000 Dalton) without pre-treatment. The actual acceptable feed water qualities are subject to the varying MWCO of our membrane used in our various modules.
  2. These are the base possible applications where our modules of different configurations are concerned. The actual applications of each type of our modules may vary according to our clients’ feed water qualities and their application specifics.
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